Oli started his political profession in 1966. He joined the Communist Party of Nepal in February 1970. He got to be distinctly required in subversive legislative issues contrary to the gathering less Panchayat System set up at the time. For his exercises, he was captured without precedent for 1970. After a year he turned into the District council individual from the gathering and soon the Chief of the Jhapa Movement Organizing Committee in 1972. Oli was captured and detained for 14 back to back years for killings from 1973 to 1987. The homicides were credited to “Murkatta transformation”, decapitating political adversaries and landowners. Subsequent to getting away from prison in 1987, he turned into a focal board of trustees individual from UML as an in-control for Lumbini Zone until 1990. He then went ahead to hold the post of head of the outside bureau of the CPN (UML) in 1992. Oli likewise turned into the Founder President of the National Democratic Youth Federation of Nepal (DNYF).
He was chosen as an individual from parliament in the House of Representatives from Jhapa locale’s electorate no. 6 in 1991. Before long he turned into the head of the bureau of reputation. In the steadily changing political circumstance of Nepal, Oli served as Minister of Home Affairs in 1994–1995. He was re-chosen to the House of Representatives from Jhapa electorate no. 2 in 1999.
Oli was named as Deputy Prime Minister as a feature of the interval government in 2006. He was additionally relegated to investigate the passing of kindred lawmaker Madan Bhandari. From April 2006 to 2007, Oli was Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Oli remained as a hopeful in the 2008 Constituent Assembly race yet neglected to win a seat. After five years, he won the Jhapa–7 situate in the 2013 Constituent Assembly decision as a CPN-UML applicant. He was assigned as the Chief of the International Department of the CPN-UML Parliamentary Party.